Doctors urge wider use of cholesterol drugs

New guidelines for first time target strokes as well as heart attacks
Associated Press
Nov 12, 2013

The nation's first new guidelines in a decade for preventing heart attacks and strokes call for twice as many Americans — one-third of all adults — to consider taking cholesterol-lowering statin drugs.

The guidelines, issued Tuesday by the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology, are a big change. They offer doctors a new formula for estimating a patient's risk that includes many factors besides a high cholesterol level, the main focus now. The formula includes age, gender, race and factors such as whether someone smokes.

The guidelines for the first time take aim at strokes, not just heart attacks. Partly because of that, they set a lower threshold for using medicines to reduce risk.

The definition of high cholesterol isn't changing, but the treatment goal is. Instead of aiming for a specific number, using whatever drugs get a patient there, the advice stresses statins such as Lipitor and Zocor and identifies four groups of people they help the most.

"The emphasis is to try to treat more appropriately," said Dr. Neil Stone, the Northwestern University doctor who headed the cholesterol guideline panel. "We're going to give statins to those who are the most likely to benefit."

Doctors say the new approach will limit how many people with low heart risks are put on statins simply because of a cholesterol number. Yet under the new advice, 33 million Americans — 44 percent of men and 22 percent of women — would meet the threshold to consider taking a statin. Under the current guidelines, statins are recommended for only about 15 percent of adults.

Some doctors not involved in writing the guidance worry that it will be tough to understand.

"It will be controversial, there's no question about it. For as long as I remember, we've told physicians and patients we should treat their cholesterol to certain goal levels," said the Cleveland Clinic's Dr. Steven Nissen. "There is concern that there will be a lot of confusion about what to do."

The government's National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute appointed expert panels to write the new guidelines in 2008, but in June said it would leave drafting them to the Heart Association and College of Cardiology. New guidelines on lifestyle and obesity also came out Tuesday, and ones on blood pressure are coming soon.

Roughly half the cholesterol panel members have financial ties to makers of heart drugs, but panel leaders said no one with industry connections could vote on the recommendations.

"It is practically impossible to find a large group of outside experts in the field who have no relationships to industry," said Dr. George Mensah of the heart institute. He called the guidelines "a very important step forward" based on solid evidence, and said the public should trust them.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. High cholesterol leads to hardened arteries that can cause a heart attack or stroke. Most cholesterol is made by the liver, so diet changes have a limited effect on it.

Millions of Americans take statins, which reduce cholesterol dramatically and have other effects that more broadly lower the chances of heart trouble.

The patents on Lipitor, Zocor and other statins have expired, and they are widely available in generic versions for as little as a dime a day. One that is still under patent protection is AstraZeneca's Crestor, which had sales of $8.3 billion in 2012.

Despite a small increased risk of muscle problems and accelerating diabetes in patients already at risk for it, statins are "remarkably safe drugs" whose benefits outweigh their risks, said Dr. Donald Lloyd-Jones, preventive-medicine chief at Northwestern.

Current guidelines say total cholesterol should be under 200, and LDL, or "bad cholesterol," under l00. Other drugs such as niacin and fibrates are sometimes added to statins to try to reach those goals, but studies show they don't always lower the chances of heart problems.

"Chasing numbers can lead us to using drugs that haven't been proven to help patients. You can make someone's lab test look better without making them better," said Yale University cardiologist Dr. Harlan Krumholz, who has long urged the broader risk approach the new guidelines take.

They say statins do the most good for:

—People who already have heart disease.

—Those with LDL of 190 or higher, usually because of genetic risk.

—People ages 40 to 75 with Type 2 diabetes.

—People ages 40 to 75 who have an estimated 10-year risk of heart disease of 7.5 percent or higher, based on the new formula. (This means that for every 100 people with a similar risk profile, seven or eight would have a heart attack or stroke within 10 years.)

Aspirin — widely used to lower the risk of strokes and heart attacks — is not addressed in the guidelines. And many drugs other than statins are still recommended for certain people, such as those with high triglycerides.

Patients should not stop taking any heart drug without first checking with their doctor.

The guidelines also say:

—Adults 40 to 79 should get an estimate every four to six years of their chances of suffering a heart attack or stroke over the next decade using the new formula. It includes age, sex, race, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking. If risk remains unclear, doctors can consider family history or three other tests. The best one is a coronary artery calcium test, an X-ray to measure calcium in heart arteries.

—For those 20 to 59, an estimate of their lifetime risk of a heart attack or stroke can be considered using traditional factors like cholesterol and blood pressure to persuade them to change their lifestyle.

—To fight obesity, doctors should develop individualized weight loss plans including a moderately reduced calorie diet, exercise and behavior strategies. The best ones offer two or three in-person meetings a month for at least six months. Web or phone-based programs are a less-ideal option.

—Everyone should get at least 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise three or four times a week.

—People should eat a "dietary pattern" focused on vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Include low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, beans and healthy oils and nuts. Limit sweets, sweet drinks, red meat, saturated fat and salt.

"I don't like the concept of 'good foods' and 'bad foods,'" said Dr. Robert Eckel, a University of Colorado cardiologist who worked on the guidelines. "We really want to emphasize dietary patterns."

 

Comments

EdgeOfTheH20

hell yes! Gotta keep those patients enabled to continue consuming chemicals

Darkhorse

The patient is educating themselves. This medication is the worse medication you can take. The more pills the doctors feed the patient, the more problems they have and continue to go back again and again to the doctor due to complications of the pills. What ever happened to do no harm? Stay healthy so you are not popping 15 to 20 pills a day all interacting with one another and you continue to get sicker and sicker, more business for the doctors.

deertracker

Agreed!

sorryhog

My opinion?
I think some of these doctors get a kick-back from the drug companies for pushing their drugs.

deertracker

They do. It's called a bonus!

KnuckleDragger

Again, you have no idea what you are talking about. I guess being the hospital janitor qualifies you to make such a statement?

deertracker

No, you have no idea what YOU are talking about. I know you think you know it all but obviously you don't! Doctors get lots of perks from drug companies. Run along now and kill some more varmints in your junkyard!

Tiredofthe BS

American way...make as much money as you can at ANYONE'S expense.

sandtown born a...

What ever happened to correcting your heart health issues with diet and exercise? I know it doesn't fix all the problems but to throw drugs at a patient everytime is ludacris.

sandtown born a...

I personally had a physical in January blood work was alarming, high sugar levels, blood pressure borderline, high liver enzymes, just to name a few I was told loose some weight and it will correct itself well almost 11 months later and 60+ lbs lighter and guess what, I had blood work redone and everything is perfect for a middle aged male. NO PILLS just common sense and better eating choices makes a huge difference it wasn't as easy as taking meds but I THANK my RESPONSIBLE doctor for recommending the correct alternative to pills.

The Bizness

Well done! Amazing what some hard work gets you.

pcforlife

Nice job-keep up the good work!

OSUBuckeye59

Synthetic pharmaceuticals all treat symptoms. Our bodies are incredibly complex systems. Prescription medications such as cholesterol statins are ordered for patients by doctors to reduce cholesterol levels, which they almost always do, but the underlying problem is the underlying issues are never addressed, meaning, the issues that led to the high cholesterol are never identified and corrected, so the patient ends up actually getting worse. Good example would be the drugs Prevacid or Zantac that reduce stomach acid & thus alleviate the problem of heartburn. The underlying issue of why people are getting heartburn is because they are not making enough stomach acid, thus causing the heartburn. So the people take heartburn meds that alleviate the symptoms but the condition is actually worsening.

We have become a nation of pill takers. Pharmaceutical companies want us hooked on their medications: "Doctor, I have this problem." "Let me write you a prescription." Patient takes prescription, symptoms are alleviated, patient is "cured"...until they stop taking the med *OR* the symptom returns *OR* another symptom pops up that was masked by the other symptom.

As I've contributed in other SR forums in the past, my wife is a Nutritional Therapist Practitioner. She hasn't taken so much as even an aspirin in the past 8 years and I haven't in the past 7. We are very careful about what we do and don't eat (and this includes even the water we drink), take targeted whole-food supplements as recommended by my wife & exercise daily. We rarely if ever get sick, have cholesterol & triglyceride levels putting us in the Top 1% of healthy individuals (according to the supposed acceptable levels), and at the age of 52 my wife often gets pegged for being no older than 40. I'm a 54 year old male whose father had high PSA counts in his later years of life and my older brother has had PSA counts above 6 since he turned 50. My PSA count? I have no measurable count. In fact, every year at my yearly free health checkup my PCP is always stunned that my prostate is as normal as when he initially checked it in my 40th year, and he always says, "If all my patients were as healthy as you I'd be out of business!"

We are only as healthy as how we treat our body.

SamAdams

Why do you think so many of the "powers that be" are so interested in exerting control over vitamins, herbs, and other over-the-counter remedies? I realize that not everybody can be bothered to do the research on various and sundry substances, but all natural is safer than all chemical just about every time. It's also just as effective and usually gentler to your system!

pcforlife

So many find comfort in knowing that the DR will just give them a pill to "fix" them. The problem with that is now we have a society dependent on pharmaceuticals to control their bodies, better yet NOT ALLOW their bodies to function properly. One pill is given to "fix" then another is given to "subside" an effect caused by the first "fix" pill. Overall diet and exercise can control and stabilize your bodies natural abilities. I found this out later in life than I should have, but making sure that I am healthy now and have made the lifestyle changes to keep it that way has made all the difference. NO NEED to ingest synthetic materials to make my system function naturally. Take care of what you have-getting in bad shape or bad health certainly did not happen over night-you have to be willing to take it back and put in the time and efforts to make yourself healthy-naturally!